The Nature Of Electrons
Electrons are believed by many to be a point particle with no substructure. They are also believed to be much smaller than a proton, but in the hydrogen atom, for example, the electron is the size of the atom. Electrons can actually be many times larger than an atom in the solid state (see Misconception Series).
According to the work of Dr. John G. Williamson, Dr. Martin B. van der Mark, and Dr. Vivian Robinson, the substructure of the electron has been elucidated. An electron is formed when a photon of the appropriate energy makes two complete revolutions for every one wavelength, forming a stationary wave of toroidal topology that defines the particle. This explains (and unifies) the electron’s shared particle and wave nature.
The image above (right) — this electron snapshot — can be misleading because it is really two images combined. The toroidal (donut) shape represents the phase-locked path of the rotating photon in its momentum space. The sphere in the center represents a projection into normal 3-dimensional space of the electron’s charge, which manifests as a sphere. (CLICK HERE to see one of John Williamson’s lectures on the subject.)
This work clarifies how an electron can have both particle and wave properties. While it is a particle, it is made out of a photon, which itself has both wave and particle properties. Since electrons are affected by the presence of other charged particles and photons, when multiple electrons interact in the same atom or molecule, they result in orbitals that are symmetrical, phase-locked, resonant, coherent, spherical-harmonic, stationary electron waves that represent the lowest energy state of the system.
Hierarchy of Electron Forces
Electrons have electric charge, magnetic field, and spin (angular momentum) as a consequence of their structure, described above. Electron interactions will be influenced by the interplay of these properties. Angular momentum — like energy — must be conserved. Electrons will seek maximum symmetry and lowest energy.
Let us look at how electrons interact in atoms as a Hierarchy of Forces.
From strongest to weakest, they are:
(1) Strong Antiparallel Boson Inclusion (Strong ABI)
(2a) (Pauli) Charge Exclusion
(2b) Parallel Spin Sharing (PSS)
(3a) Linear Spin Sharing (LSS)
(3b) Weak Antiparallel Boson Inclusion (Weak ABI)
Electrons in Atoms
- NUCLEAR ATTRACTION:
Electrons are present because they are attracted into the positive charge well of the nuclear protons. As electrons arrive, they will try to approach and envelop the nucleus. If they are competing with other repulsive electrons for the privilege, they will have to find their positions in the resulting orbital resonance by submitting to the relative strengths of their interactions. These are a function of distance from the nucleus, spatial geometry, and charge/field/spin interactions.
- STRONG ANTIPARALLEL BOSON INCLUSION (Strong ABI):
When two electrons envelop a nucleus, they will snap into a preferred antiparallel relationship because this allows them to approach each other and to superimpose upon one another. This allows for maximum magnetic field cancellation, lowering both energy and angular momentum significantly. At such close distances, the attraction of magnetic field cancellation overwhelms electrostatic charge repulsion since the magnetic force is about two orders of magnitude (102) stronger than the electric force. This gives rise to the di-electron state that is the helium (He) atom’s 1s2 shell. This is a distinct state from that of individual electrons.
When two electrons on approaching adjacent atoms have antiparallel spin, they can be attracted into this superimposed di-electron state, giving rise to a single covalent bond, as in the dihydrogen molecule.
2a. ELECTROSTATIC PAULI (CHARGE) EXCLUSION:
If the spherical s-orbitals are full, new electrons must resonate as non-spherical p-orbitals (or higher). This no longer allows the electron density to achieve symmetry around the spherical atomic core. The electrons are unable to superimpose, and asymmetry raises resonance energy and decreases coherence. Electrons must therefore seek symmetry by venturing into the slightly higher energy state of parallel spin. At a greater distance, electrostatic repulsion returns to primacy because the stronger (dipole) magnetic force drops off as the inverse cube of distance whereas the (monopole) electric charge drops off as the inverse square of distance — meaning, it drops off more slowly than the magnetic force, and is therefore stronger at larger distances.
The like charges of electrons cause them to repel each other, moving them as far from each other as their atomic geometry will allow.
However, the energy of these electrons is now higher than it would be if they were in a superimposed, di-electron state (under strong ABI). This necessitates a lowering of energy in order to compensate, and this is possible through quantum spin interactions:
2b. PARALLEL SPIN SHARING (PSS):
According to the Quantum TORCH, a new theory of electron quantum coherence, once electrons with parallel spin achieve the maximum allowed distance from one another, the forces of repulsion are in balance. They will then be able to link their spin states into a single, larger, coherent, multi-electron quantum state. This lowers energy and pseudo-stabilizes these otherwise unpaired electrons, in a similar way that gyroscopes can be spin-linked. (In their internal structure electrons are extremely powerful, light-speed gyroscopes.) This is the reason that degenerate electrons find greater stability (lower energy) when their spins are aligned in a parallel manner.
Degenerate electrons therefore preferentially assume parallel spin states, creating a more favorable energy condition out of one that is otherwise less stable. This is what occurs during hybridization. In the sp2 hybridization in boron, for example, the two s-electrons uncouple from their di-electron state and elevate their energies, all so that the single p-electron can lower its energy. The three electrons can then find symmetry and coherence as a set of trigonal planar degenerate electrons. This might be analogized to the release of lattice energy, which makes the NaCl crystal formation process energetically favorable, even though the ionization energy and electron affinity of sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) respectively paint an unfavorable energetic picture on their own. Degeneracy — spin sharing — compensates for the energy increase of electrostatic repulsion by lowering energy through the stabilization of angular momentum linkage.
The Pauli Exclusion Principle thus embodies the process of field exclusion in concert with Parallel Spin Sharing in order to create the next most favorable energy state after the di-electron state. It is why, for example, carbon‘s four valence electrons form a tetrahedral symmetry, and therefore why carbon compounds have their various bonding geometries.
Electrons in Molecules
Molecular electron interactions generally occur at greater distances than atomic ones, and are therefore weaker than atomic forces in the hierarchy. Once magnetic, electrostatic, and spin forces at close range have been satisfied, magnetic and spin effects at greater distances come into play. These effects can be meaningful.
The Quantum TORCH introduces the idea that unpaired electrons on adjacent atoms in a molecule can experience quantum interactions, and that these interactions pseudo-stabilize otherwise unpaired electrons into a coherent quantum state.
3a. LINEAR SPIN SHARING (LSS):
Electrons on adjacent atoms in a molecule that have parallel spins and that are free to re-align themselves into a linear arrangement, will do so in order that their magnetic fields can be perfectly aligned. This results in Linear Spin Sharing, which causes magnetic field to cancel between the electrons. This pseudo-stabilizes them by lowering energy, and results in an attractive force and a shortening of molecular bonds. Such LSS alignment also concentrates spin and makes an atom or molecule more susceptible to alignment with an external magnetic field.
3b. WEAK ANTIPARALLEL BOSON INCLUSION (Weak ABI):
Electrons on adjacent atoms in a molecule are phase-locked resonance structures. If they have antiparallel spins, they will attract one another but they will not be able to superimpose due to higher order constraints. This results in a weak ABI force — a partial cancellation of field between the electrons — which pseudo-stabilizes them by lowering energy. This is also an attractive force that shortens molecular bonds.
Evidence that might lend support to this Quantum TORCH view might be the observed ‘quadruple bond’ in the dicarbon (C2) molecule. This fourth ‘bond’ has been measured at 55kJ/mol, which is rather weak in comparison to the strength of a C-C single bond (347kJ/mol).
When we look at the structure of dicarbon using an extended Lewis Structure that shows relative spin states, we see that the dicarbon molecule allows for either Weak ABI or LSS linkage between the unpaired electrons on the opposite sides of the molecule. It is possible that this attractive force is responsible for the 55kJ/mol bonding that has been measured in experiment.
The following extended Lewis Dot structure for dicarbon shows bonding electrons as dots on the bond, and indicates the relative spin states of the electrons with a small circle or diamond.
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