Here is a list of terms, some of which emerge from the work of Quicycle members and with which you might be unfamiliar. (See Chemistry Definitions for terms related specifically to chemistry.)


Absolute Force:
This is not an inter-action. It is just action. It is a force to which there is no resistance, a process that must occur. Example: If there is a changing electric field, there will be a corresponding changing magnetic field associated with it. It is a fundamental process of electro-mass dynamics.

Absolute Relativity (A.R.):
The conscious restriction of thinking to only elements with the proper relativistic form. (See The Mathematics of Absolute Relativity Theory below.)

The smallest particle of a pure element. When two or more atoms are bonded together it is called a molecule. All solids, liquids, and gases are made of atoms or molecules. An atom contains a nucleus, a tiny positively charged central region containing protons and neutrons. This is surrounded by an electron cloud, a region of negative charge that fills the space around the nucleus. The positive charge field of the nucleus is thus cancelled by the negative charge field of the electron cloud around it. The charges are therefore balanced, and this stabilizes the atom by achieving a lowest energy state. Protons, neutrons, and electrons are known as subatomic particles. If electrons are added or removed, the atom will no longer be balanced and will have an overall charge. It is then called an ion.

A subatomic particle with an integer quantum spin, meaning a spin of S = 0, 1, 2, etc. All subatomic particles are either a boson or a fermion. Examples of bosons include di-electrons (Cooper Pairs) and photons of light.

A pair of electrons of opposite spin that have completely superimposed upon one another. This yields a single, coherent, quantum state which brings their magnetic fields into equal and opposite orientations at every point within the di-electron, facilitating almost total magnetic field cancellation. It also facilitates a cancellation of the equal and opposite quantum spins, converting two fermions (with spin 1/2) to one boson (with spin 0). This results in a highly stable and favorable state, in spite of the like-charge electric field repulsion, because it allows for a significant lowering of energy. Examples of di-electrons include the 1s2 shell in helium (He), the covalent bond in the hydrogen molecule (H2), the “lone pair” on the nitrogen atom (N), and the superconducting Cooper pair. For more on electrons, see Understanding electrons.

This is Einstein’s famous formula that relates energy (E) to mass (m), using the square of the speed of light (c2) as the ratio (or conversion factor) between them. Radiant energy and matter are really two forms of the same root-energy ‘stuff.’ If we want to know how much pure energy we get if we convert matter into pure radiant energy, we multiply the mass by the speed of light squared, which is a very large number (9×1016). It also reflects the fact that particles that have mass, such as electrons (see below), are photons of light that are traveling in a circle (or knot) rather than in a straight line. Such self-sustaining photon resonance structures are the essence of matter.

Electromagnetic radiation:
The scientific term for light waves, whether they are in the visible part of the spectrum (like the colors of the rainbow) or the invisible part of the spectrum (for example radio waves or gamma rays). Light waves store part of their energy in an electric field and part of it in a magnetic field, hence the name. In a typical circularly-polarized photon, the electric and magnetic fields spiral around the axis of travel, 90 degrees apart. Since an electric field incites a forward motion, like velocity, and magnetic field incites a rotation (see spacetime), the combination of the two should yield a combined electromagnetic field that spirals as it moves forward. Electromagnetic waves can only travel at the speed of light (c), which is just under 300,000 kilometers per second. Like most waves, they have a wavelength (𝜆) and a frequency (𝜈), and the mathematical relationship between these three properties is given by the equation c=𝜆𝜈. This implies that the larger the frequency, the smaller the wavelength, and vice versa, because the speed of light (c) must remain unchanged. The amount of energy carried by an electromagnetic wave depends on its frequency. This is reflected in the Planck equation for energy, E=h𝜈, in which the higher the frequency (𝜈) of the wave, the more energy (E) it carries. The ratio between energy and frequency is Planck’s constant (h) (where h=6.626×10-34 m2kg/s). High frequency waves, such as ultraviolet waves, are more dangerous than low frequency waves, such as radio waves, because UV waves carry much more energy. They can therefore ionize molecules, disrupt cellular function, or cause radiation burns. From lowest energy to highest, the main types of electromagnetic radiation are: radio, microwave, infrared, visible (red/orange/yellow/green/blue/indigo/violet), ultraviolet, X-ray, gamma ray.

Electron (e):
One of the three subatomic particles out of which all atoms are made. (The other two are the proton and the neutron.) An electron is negatively charged and highly stable. Contrary to popular misconception, it is not a point particle but it has a sub-structure that gives rise to its properties. It is made of a single photon of light making two revolutions per wavelength. An electron is thus a self-confined knot of concentrated light energy traveling around itself at the speed of light. It has a toroidal (donut-shaped) sub-structure in (momentum) space, but the charge field of an isolated electron (or an s-orbital electron around a hydrogen or helium atom) manifests as a sphere. As a result of the geometry of this double-loop torus and the circular polarization of the photon, the photon’s negative electric field is pointing outwards at all times, which is what gives the electron its negative charge. An electron is a fermion and has a left-handed spin of S=½, a charge of C=-1.6×10-19 Coulombs, and a mass-energy content of 511 keV. For more on electrons, see Understanding electrons.

A unique, pure substance made up of only one type of atom. The number of protons in an atom’s nucleus determines which element it is, and this is known as its atomic number. The periodic table of the elements lists all 118 known elements in order of their atomic numbers. By way of example, the nuclei of all hydrogen atoms contain 1 proton, all helium nuclei contain two, and so on. The uranium atom has the heaviest naturally-occurring nucleus, and it contains 92 protons. All of the heavier nuclei, from atomic number 93 through 118, do not occur naturally and are created through the application of man-made nuclear technologies (like reactors, for example). They are all naturally unstable, and therefore, radioactive.

A subatomic particle with an odd half-integer quantum spin, meaning a spin of S = 1/2, 3/2, 5/2, etc. All subatomic particles are either a fermion or a boson. Examples of fermions include the electron, proton, and neutron.

Frequency (𝜈):
The frequency of a wave is a measure of how frequently it passes a given point each second, or put another way, how many wave crests pass a given point each second. If two waves pass every second, the frequency is 2 (waves) “per second,” also known as 2 Hertz (Hz). Frequency is measured in “per second,” which means 1/sec (or s-1). This means that frequency is the inverse (or reciprocal) of time, which is measured in sec/1 (or s1). Frequency represents energy. As reflected in the Planck equation, E=h𝜈, the higher the frequency (𝜈) of an electromagnetic wave, the more energy (E) it carries. (Planck’s constant h = 6.626×10-34 m2kg/s.) High frequency ultraviolet waves are more dangerous than low frequency radio waves because the UV waves carry much more energy. With electromagnetic (light) waves, when frequency (𝜈) increases, wavelength (𝜆) decreases, and vice versa. This is because the speed of light (c) is constant, and the three are related by the equation c=𝜆𝜈. Frequency is also the means by which we measure time, whether the frequency of a pendulum, an atom, or a planetary orbit. Without frequency, there is no time measurement.

Gravity (G):
Gravity is a very weak force exerted by one mass upon another. In fact, it is about 1038 times weaker than electromagnetism. Isaac Newton’s equation for gravity is F=GMm/r2. This equation describes that the force (F) of attraction exerted by one mass (M) upon another mass (m) gets weaker with (the square of the) distance (r). (The gravitational constant G=6.674×10−11 m3kg−1s−2.) According to Albert Einstein, gravity is caused by the fact that mass distorts spacetime. According to Vivian Robinson, the mechanism by which mass distorts spacetime is via the redshift of photons (see more here). Gravity is caused by a change in the refractive index of space, which is caused by the radial differential of the electric permittivity of space. In turn, this is induced by the high frequency electric field oscillations resulting from the rotating photon structure of protons and neutrons. The high frequency nucleon oscillations add to produce a variation in electric permittivity that produces the same deflection for photons of all frequencies. This approach results in a single, simple equation — an equation of quantum gravity: Fz=GMm/r2e𝛼/r — that derives Newton’s inverse square law as a first approximation, Einstein’s field equations as a second approximation, and the bright torus-shaped accretion disc observed (at r=0.5𝛼) around massive objects and galaxy centers as an exact solution. Gravity is therefore an electromagnetic effect. When mass distorts spacetime strongly, the force of gravity is weakened to slightly less than inverse-square (see more here). That is the reason the orbit of Mercury’s perihelion precesses around the Sun in its direction of travel. (If gravity were stronger than inverse-square, such orbits would regress.)

Harmonic resonance:
When an object vibrates or when waves interact, if their frequencies are multiples of one another then some of their nodes can overlap perfectly where they meet. The waves then reinforce each other and stabilize themselves into a single symmetrical wave state. Such a harmonic resonance state represents a lower energy state for a system since the waves can now share energy. They will therefore naturally seek out this state if they can. One example of a harmonic resonance would be the wave state set up on a guitar or a violin string when they are played, since multiple harmonics are sounding simultaneously, their waves superimposed along the string. Another occurs when a wine glass is shattered by a sound wave whose resonance matches perfectly with its interior volume. If the sound wave carries enough power, the vibrations it induces in the glass structure can destabilize it, causing it to crack or shatter. Subatomic particles like protons or electrons are also harmonic resonance states involving the rotating photons of various energies that make them up. Overall, quantum states can only be stable and coherent if they are in a state of harmonic resonance. Since there are no stable states between harmonics, it means that harmonic states will be intrinsically quantized. Mathematically, the term ‘harmonic’ means that the wave equations satisfy the double differential of themselves (where ∇2=0).

The directed space-space-space volume element in M.A.R.T. The element can be outwardly-directed, like the spines on a hedgehog, or — a somewhat less comfortable image (for the hedgehog) — inwardly-directed.

An atom that has either lost or gained one or more electrons, which changes its charge from neutral to either positive or negative (respectively). In nature, crystals (like salt or quartz) are made of ions. While the term can refer to either positive or negative ions, it is often used to refer to positive ions, as in the case of cosmic rays, for example. Electromagnetic radiation that has enough energy to knock electrons free from atoms is called ionizing radiation. This also makes it hazardous to biological tissue, since changing the charge of a molecule in the body will affect the chemical role it plays.

The consideration of a complete quantum system, including source, observer, and that which is common between them.

Atoms of the same element can have different masses if they have different numbers of neutrons in their nucleus. This does not change the charge balance in the atom because neutrons are neutral, and it does not change the type of element because that depends only on the number of protons, which is not changing. Atoms of the same element that have different masses are called isotopes. Some are stable but others are radioactive. By way of example, uranium has two primary isotopes, the more stable U238 and the radioactive U235. Over 99% of uranium atoms have a mass of 238 atomic mass units, and only less than 1% have a mass of 235 amu. This is the reason uranium atoms must be separated in a centrifuge in order to collect enough U235 for use in a reactor or a bomb.

The “Mathematics of Absolute Relativity Theory”
An evolving Clifford-Dirac algebra designed to encapsulate Absolute Relativity. It aims to develop to a solution of Hilbert’s 6th. It is named in memory and honor of founding Quicyclist, Dr. Martin van der Mark. (See Computational Tools)

A force of attraction or repulsion resulting from the flow of electric current or the spin of a charged particle. According to both the Williamson-van der Mark and Robinson models, subatomic particles are made of self-confined knots of electromagnetic radiation. In the toroidal, double-loop rotation of the electron, for example, chirality is immediately a characteristic of the system, and this naturally divides ‘spin reactions’ (magnetism) into two complementary forms that we call north and south. They are simply the two relative chiral orientations of the rotating electromagnetic flow.

In an electron, the (instantaneous) north magnetic pole lies along the axis running through the center of the torus, in the direction of the thumb in a left-handed chiral rotation. South lies in the opposite direction along the same axis. In an isolated electron, the magnetic field averages to zero (due to the electron’s spin). The magnetic moment of the electron emerges in the presence of an external field, which breaks the internal spherical symmetry of an isolated electron.

This magnetic spin then extends its influence into the spacetime around it, distorting its magnetic permeability (μ0), which causes other magnetic fields to respond when they encounter this distortion. The magnetic fields of other nearby electrons will therefore interact with this electron’s field in such a way that north repels north but attracts south. This ultimately derives from the fact that angular momenta are either working together, lowering energy (attraction), or working against each other, increasing energy (repulsion).

Unpaired electrons therefore have magnetic fields as a result of their spins and that of the photons that constitute them. When the unpaired electrons throughout a metal crystal align their magnetic spins, the crystal as a whole manifests a macro-magnetic field. One example of this is an iron ferromagnet. When electrons pair up, on the other hand, they superimpose in a way that finds them perfectly anti-parallel, and this cancels out their magnetic fields. One example of this is the electron shell of a helium (He) atom. This pair is no longer attracted towards other magnetic fields, but rather, repels them. This is called diamagnetism, and it happens in order to maintain the pair’s perfect field cancellation, which is their lowest energy state.

A combination of two of more atoms bonded together. Simple examples include the hydrogen molecule (H2), the oxygen molecule (O2), and the water molecule (H2O). More complex examples include protein and DNA molecules, which can contain hundreds or even thousands of atoms.

Neutron (n0):
One of the three subatomic particles out of which all atoms are made. (The other two are the proton and the electron.) A neutron carries no overall charge and, like a proton, is almost 2,000 times more massive than an electron. It has a spin of S=0 and a mass-energy content of 939.6 MeV. Like the proton, its sub-structure has a complex configuration in (momentum) space, but like the electron, it is still comprised of a photon of the appropriate energy making two revolutions per wavelength. A neutron is neutral because it contains the charge of the proton plus the charge of the electron, though it is not neutral throughout its structure. It contains regions of positive charge and regions of negative charge. The mass of the neutron is very similar to (though slightly larger than) the combined masses of the proton (938.3 MeV) and electron (511 keV). The difference in their masses represents the difference in energy between the neutron state and the electro-proton state that is the hydrogen (H) atom. An isolated neutron is not stable and usually decays in less than 15 minutes, splitting into a proton, an electron, and emitting the additional energy (in the form of an anti-neutrino). Neutrons are necessary in any nucleus containing more than 1 proton. Protons would otherwise repel one another, but neutrons are able to bind them together electrostatically. (See The Robinson Model of Nuclear Binding.)

The neutrino is the smallest stable subatomic particle. It has no charge, no magnetic moment, a spin of S=½, and an exceedingly small mass-energy content of the order of 10-4 eV. That energy corresponds to the peak energy of the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature of ~2.7°K. Cosmological neutrinos constitute by far the most common component of the universe with a density of about 1012 neutrinos per cubic meter (see more here). Like the electron, it is comprised of a single photon of the appropriate energy making two revolutions per wavelength. Neutrinos can travel at very high speeds approaching the speed of light. While they do not easily interact with matter, neutrinos can be either captured or released during the process of one subatomic particle morphing into another. When a neutron decays into a proton and an electron, for example, a neutrino is also produced as a by-product of the reaction, and it will have a spin opposite to that of the electron. This is the means by which the angular momentum (spin) of all the particles involved in the transition is conserved. In addition, the universe is literally completely filled with neutrinos. Like electrons, neutrinos are not point particles. They are rotating photon loops, just like all other particles, and they have size. There are over a million cosmic neutrinos in every cubic millimeter of space, and each one has a radius of about 2 millimeters. That provides a continuous effect through all of space, a ‘substrate’ with the same quantum spin as the electron, through which all photons must travel.

The scalar unit element in MART. It has the same physical dimension as the magnetic field but transforms as a rest-mass rather than a field.

A quantum (or ‘packet’ or bullet) of light energy. Electromagnetic radiation travels in discreet packets called photons. It does not travel in a continuous stream, as we might imagine when we look at a beam of light or a laser. There are usually so many photons being released so rapidly by a light source that it only gives the impression of being a continuous beam. In a typical circularly-polarized photon, the electric and magnetic fields spiral around the axis of travel, 90 degrees apart. The fields complete one revolution around the axis for every wavelength. This gives the photon a quantum spin = 1, making it a boson. The spin of a photon can also be excited up to higher spin states, but they can only be integer spin states, for instance S = 2, 3, 4, etc.

Positron (e+):
A positively charged subatomic particle, identical to the electron, except that it has the opposite charge. It is the electron’s ‘anti-particle,’ and this illustrates the concept of antimatter. It is ‘anti’ in the sense of its charge being opposite, and it also has opposite spin. Like the electron, it is made of a single photon of light making two revolutions per wavelength. A positron is thus a self-confined knot of concentrated light energy traveling around itself at the speed of light, and it therefore has a toroidal (donut-shaped) sub-structure in (momentum) space. As a result of the geometry of this double-loop torus, the photon’s positive electric field is pointing outwards at all times, which is what gives the positron its positive charge. When an electron and a positron meet, they unlock each other’s photons’ angular momenta, converting their rotating photons to linear photons in an explosion of pure energy called a matter-antimatter annihilation. A positron has a right-handed spin of S=½, a charge of C=+1.6×10-19 Coulombs, and a mass-energy content of 511 keV.

Proton (p+):
One of the three subatomic particles out of which all atoms are made. (The other two are the neutron and the electron.) A proton is positively charged and almost 2,000 times more massive than an electron. It is a fermion and has a spin of S=½, a charge of +1.6×10-19 Coulombs, and a mass-energy content of 938.3 MeV. Like the neutron, its sub-structure has a complex configuration in (momentum) space, but like the electron, it is still made up of a photon of the appropriate energy making two revolutions per wavelength. Atoms of a given element are identified according to their number of protons. This is called the atomic number, and the periodic table of the elements is laid out in order of atomic number.

‘Quantum’ means ‘countable.’ It means that something happens in integer units. It also implies that changes must occur in discrete steps rather than in a smooth, continuous gradient. These ‘quantum leaps’ of change mean that the process or system is quantized. Stairs and piano keyboards are examples of things that are quantized. Ramps and violins are not. The fundamental reason for quantization is that waves resonate in multiples of their wavelengths, rather than at arbitrary points in between. Subatomic particles are made of photons that make double-loop rotations. They are only stable if their rotations are in multiples of double-loops. A “quantum” of light is called a photon, and it is the amount of electromagnetic energy that is emitted, transmitted, or absorbed in a quantum inter-action. A photon can even have a very high energy, which means that each packet of energy at that wavelength carries a large amount of energy. An example is the gamma ray. Electron clouds in atoms can also only manifest certain discrete electron states. This is because each electron is an identical unit, and because their interactions result in discrete, resonant, stationary wave states. Electron clouds transition between adjacent energy states by emitting or absorbing whole photons (or electrons) — one quantum at a time.

Quantum Inversion (Q.I.):
The underlying process of photon emission and absorption.
(See Van der Mark, Williamson, 2016)

Quantum mechanics:
The science that describes light, subatomic particles, and their quantum interactions. It is based upon the idea that all interactions are quantized. Particles and energy states can be described by equations called wave-functions, since they are resonant wave states that are made up of photons.

The 4-dimensional analog of the “Hedgehog” (see above).

(Pronounced like ‘bicycle,’ but with a ‘Qu.’)
A contraction of the words “Quantum Bicycle.” It represents the turning, twisting, and tumbling motion of an electron (or positron) in free (4D) spacetime.
It is also short for ‘The Quantum Bicycle Society,’ whose website you are currently perusing .

In the nucleus of an atom, protons, which carry a positive charge, will repel each other unless they are held together by bonding electrostatically to neutrons, whose outer regions carry negative charge (see The Robinson Model of Nuclear Binding). The balance between protons and neutrons in the nucleus is therefore very important. If a nucleus has either too many or too few neutrons, it lacks stability, and it may therefore begin ejecting or transmuting some of its subatomic particles in order to reach a stable configuration. This is called radioactivity, and it involves the ejection (or sometimes the absorption) of one or more subatomic particles or a photon of electromagnetic radiation, or both, from the nucleus. Alpha radiation occurs when two protons and two neutrons are ejected in a cluster with a 2+ charge called an alpha particle. (It is identical to the nucleus of a helium atom.) Beta radiation occurs when a neutron in the nucleus morphs into a proton by ejecting an electron and a neutrino. In the case of gamma radiation, only a (gamma ray) photon will be emitted. A radioactive decay therefore usually results in the atom turning into a different element. Almost all of the radioactive atoms on the periodic table are those with the highest atomic numbers (and largest nuclei).

Redshift (z):
This refers to the stretching of the wavelength of light radiation. It can be caused by the Doppler effect or by photon interactions with mass and gravity. The Doppler effect occurs when a light source is getting further away, either because we are moving away from it or it is moving away from us. This causes its wavelength to appear longer and its frequency to therefore appear lower. The longer wavelengths of visible light lie at the red end of the rainbow spectrum, hence the name. Redshift can also result from a photon interacting with (or moving away from) a gravitational field. Photons have inertial mass, and they are therefore affected by gravity. Such interactions will reduce their energy. A reduction in energy means a reduction in frequency, and since the speed of light is constant, this results in an increase in wavelength (see more here).

The fabric of space and time, whatever it actually is, has two basic properties that we consider: its electrical permittivity (ε0) and its magnetic permeability (μ0). The former describes the extent to which spacetime can hold (or allow the passage of) electric fields, and the latter, the same for magnetic fields. The two properties are intimately related to the speed of light (c) because light is electromagnetic and interacts with space both electrically and magnetically. It can only travel because of its electric and magnetic interactions with spacetime. The three properties are related according to the equation ε0μ0=1/c2.

The term spacetime also relates to the fact that space and time are part of the same ‘stuff’ and cannot be separated, something that may seem unintuitive since we tend to think of time and space as separate things. Spacetime is also distorted by the presence of mass, which gives rise to gravity. Relativity also describes how aspects of space and time appear to become distorted under certain conditions so that the speed of light should appear constant to every observer in every reference frame.

Mathematically, it is interesting to note that different forms of energy interact with spacetime in different ways. The three variables of space are x, y, z, and the one variable of time is t. Spacetime is therefore 4-dimensional: x, y, z, t (and their inverses). The underlying nature of electric field is that it is a (3-component) flow, a rate of change of space by time (dx/dt, dy/dt and dz/dt), like velocity. The underlying nature of the (three component) magnetic field is that it is a twist, a rate of change of space by perpendicular space (dx/dy, dy/dz and dz/dx). No t. It makes things go around in a circle. Angular momentum (spin) is the rate of change of momentum with respect to perpendicular space, taking the form of d/dx(dy/dt).

The process of a photon being reflected back out into space from Earth.
(If we could hear at the speed of light, it may also be the sound it makes.)

Spin (S):
Many subatomic particles have spin because they are made of a confined photon of light traveling in a circle, a double-loop rotation, at the speed of light (see electron). This is angular momentum at the quantum level. In the case of a charged particle, such as the electron, the (circularly polarized) photon of light making up the particle also has an intrinsic angular momentum because it spirals as it travels. According to the Williamson-van der Mark model (see more here), electrons may also contain a third level of angular momentum, since the photon’s intrinsic spin should cause the ring-shaped structure to tumble in order to conserve angular momentum (depending on the presence of an external magnetic field). According to the Robinson model, only charged particles contain intrinsic photon spin because they are made of circularly polarized photons. Neutral particles are made of plane polarized photons, and their angular momentum therefore arises entirely from their photon’s double-loop rotation (see more here).

Sub-Quantum Mechanics:
An absolutely relativistic quantum mechanics that does not begin with the particle as an axiom, but investigates the substructure of subatomic particles that give rise to their properties. It is built upon the theory of absolute relativity forwarded by John G. Williamson and Martin B. van der Mark, and is encapsulated by the Williamson equation 𝒟𝜇𝚵𝒢 = 0, where 𝒟𝜇 is a Dirac-Clifford four-vector derivative, and 𝚵𝒢 is the root-energy in sixteen spacetime forms including a Lorentz-invariant scalar ‘point’ mass-energy. This is termed the mathematics of absolute relativity (M.A.R.T.), represented by this equation, as well as quantum inversion.

Superstrong Force:
The stupidly-strong force holding the electron together. (Formerly known as the ‘Poincaré stresses.’)
If you doubt it, smash an electron into a proton at high GeV and see who’s left standing. Unscathed.

Time (t):
A quantity measured in terms of the regular vibrations or oscillations — the frequency — of a harmonic system. Typical examples include using the revolutions of the Earth around the Sun to designate a year, or the vibrations of a cesium atom in an atomic clock to designate a second. The reason that time is measured in seconds (sec) is because frequency is measured in “per second”s (1/sec), and an event’s duration is the inverse of how frequently it occurs.

Time is also not a separate ‘thing,’ but is intimately interconnected with the concept of space (see spacetime). Since all radiation and matter in the universe are made of photons, and since all photons are energy waves of a specific frequency traveling at the speed of light, Relativity will affect our perception of frequency, and therefore, also our perception of the flow of time.

The distance from the beginning of one wave to the beginning of the next — the length of one complete cycle of a wave. With electromagnetic (light) waves, when wavelength (𝜆) increases, frequency (𝜈) decreases, and vice versa. This is because the speed of light (c) is constant, and the three are related by the equation c=𝜆𝜈.

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